What is India’s Population
India’s Population is the second largest in the world. According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 1.2 billion. However, the current population of India is 1.3 Billion according to the population estimates by the United Nations, which is equivalent to 17% of the world population.
The current growth rate of India’s population
India’s population is growing at a rate of 1.1%. However, going forward the growth rate is projected to come down to 0.27% by 2050. At the time of independence in 1947, India’s population was approximately 330 Million. However, the first complete census was done in 1951, when India’s population was 361 Million.
At the time of independence, the average life expectancy was just 32 years, such was the condition of the Indians post colonial rule. India has come a long way since then. The life expectancy has improved since then and is currently 68.56 years, putting India at the 125th position in the list of Life Expectancy, which has Japan on top with a life expectancy of 83.7 years.
However, due to high birth rate and decreased death and infant mortality rates, India’s population has grown by 3.6 times since independence. While India contributed 14% to the world’s population in 1947, currently it contributes 17.74% to the world population.
While the growth rate of India’s population is projected to go down, India will still become the most populated country in the world by 2025 beating China. Currently, China has approximately 40 Million more people than India. Together these two countries constitute 36.2% of the world population. However, China’s current growth rate is just 0.39%, whereas as mentioned above, India’s growth rate is 1.1%.
We will discuss and compare the Population of China and Population of India in detail later in the article. Before that, let’s check India’s year-on-year population growth and projected population of India in the coming years.
(becomes most populated country)
India’s population distribution
India has 29 states and 7 union territories; however, five states, namely Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal constitute about 49% of India’s current population. Uttar Pradesh is the most populated Indian state with 228,959,599 inhabitants. Maharashtra is the second most populated state followed by Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
While we now know the overall population of Indian states and their contribution to India’s total population, we shall now discuss India’s population divide on the basis of urban and rural religion, sex, education/literacy and age.
India’s population distribution on the basis of Urban and Rural segments
Among the 29 states and 7 Union Territories, Delhi has the maximum urban population, whereas Himachal Pradesh’s 89.97% population is rural making it the states with the least urban population. Out of Delhi’s population, 97.5% comprises of the urban population and just 2.5% is rural population.
In fact, among the top 10 states with most urban population, top five happen to be Union Territories, namely – Delhi (97.5%), Chandigarh (97.25%), Lakshadweep (78.07%), Daman & Diu (75.17%) and Puducherry (68.33%). Other five are – Goa (62.17%), Mizoram (52.11%), Tamil Nadu(48.40%), Kerala (47.7%) and Daman & Diu (46.72%).
Among the states with largest rural population, the top 10 states are Himachal Pradesh (89.97%), Bihar (88.71%), Assam (85.9%), Odisha (83.3%), Meghalaya (79.9%), Uttar Pradesh (77.7%), Arunachal Pradesh (77.06%), Chhattisgarh (76.7%), Jharkhand (75.9%) and Rajasthan (75.13%).
India’s Population Distribution on the Basis of Religion
Hinduism is the prime religion of India as about 80% of India’s population is comprised of Hindu. There are six other religions that have been given “Minority Status”, though they are pivotal parts of India’s population. Those religions are Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism.
According to 2011 Census, India’s religious population is divided as follows – Hindu (79.8%), Islam (14.23%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.37%) and Zoroastrianism (Not accounted). Other religions that are not enlisted under “National Minority” constitute about 0.9% of India’s total population.
India’s population distribution on the basis of gender and age
It becomes exciting when we see India’s population distribution through the age lense. Approximately 60% of India’s population is below 30 years whereas approx 80% of India’s population is below 50 years. This will contribute substantially in making India one of the superpowers in the coming years.
Talking about gender divide, according to 2011 census, out of 1,210,854,977 Indians, 587,584,719 are females. See below the sex ratio in India as mentioned here (Hyperlink: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_India)
India’s population distribution on the basis of literacy rate
Literacy rate of any region – country or state means the ability to read, write and understand by a segment of population. According to 2011 census, India’s literacy rate is 74%, which can further by bifurcated under various lenses.
If we study the gender-wise literacy rate of India then it is 82% for men and 65% for women. However, the growth in female literacy is happening at a higher rate as compared to males. For females the literacy rate growth is 11.8% as compared to males’ 6.9%. While there is still a wide gap between the literacy rates of males and females, the increased growth rate among females is a positive trend that is directionally proportional to India’s socio-economic progress.
If we compare literacy rate of Indian states, then Tripura tops the list with 93.91%. Kerala is second in the list with 91.58%. Indian state with lowest literacy rate is Bihar, which has literacy rate of 63.82%.
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